JAVA FULL STACK INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

Full Stack development entails simultaneously constructing the front end and back end of a web application/website. This procedure is divided into three stages:

• The presentation layer (frontend part responsible for user experience)
• Layer of business logic (backend part refers to the server-side of the application)
• The database layer

A Full Stack Web Developer is someone who is familiar with both client and server software development. They understand how to programme browsers, databases, and servers in addition to CSS and HTML.
To completely comprehend the function of Full Stack developer, you must first understand the components of web development – front end and back end.
The front end is the visible portion of the application with which the user interacts, whereas the back end contains business logic.

Some of the popular tools used by full-stack developers to make development more accessible and efficient are:

  • Backbone
  • Visual Studio Code
  • WebStorm
  • Slack
  • Electron
  • TypeScript
  • CodePen
  • GitHub

• Basic languages – A Full Stack developer should be comfortable with basic languages such as HTML, CSS, and SQL.
• Front-end frameworks such as BootStrap, AngularJS, VueJS, ReactJS, JavaScript, TypeScript, Python, Ruby, and PHP
• Back-end frameworks such as Express, Django, NodeJS, and Ruby on Rails
• Databases, including MySQL, SQLite, Postgres, MongoDB, Cassandra, Apache Storm, and Sphinx
• Additional skills such as Git, Machine Learning, SSH, Linux Command, Data Structures, and Character Encoding are recommended.

Pair Programming, as the name implies, is when two programmers share a single workstation. Formally, the code is written by a single programmer at the keyboard known as the “driver.” The other programmer, known as the “navigator,” goes over each line of code, spell checks it, and proofreads it. In addition, programmers will switch responsibilities every few minutes and vice versa.

CORS is a mechanism that uses additional HTTP headers to instruct browsers to deliver a web application running at a single origin. CORS allows access to a variety of web resources across several domains. CORS can be used to integrate web scripts when they request a resource with an external origin (protocol, domain, or port) from their own.

Inversion of Control (IoC) is a general term used by software developers to define a strategy for decoupling system components and levels. It is most commonly used in object-oriented programming. With the help of Inversion of Control, control of objects or portions of a programme is moved to a framework or container. It can be accomplished through the use of several techniques such as the service locator pattern, the strategy design pattern, the factory pattern, and dependency injection.

Dependency Injection is a design pattern that allows IoC to be done. Rather than the item itself, the container injects things or connects objects with other objects. It consists of three types of classes.
• Client class: This is determined by the service class.
• Client class: It receives service from the service class.
• Injector class: It injects objects from the service class into the client class.

Continuous Integration (CI) is a method in which developers regularly integrate code into a shared repository in order to spot problems as early as possible. Before integrating new code, the CI process employs automatic tools that verify its accuracy. Every check-in is validated by automated builds and tests.

The primary goal of multithreading is to provide many threads of execution concurrently in order to maximise CPU utilisation. It enables many threads to exist within the context of a process, allowing them to function independently while sharing process resources.

This is a challenging question to answer, but a smart developer will be able to do it with ease. The main distinction is that GraphQL does not deal with dedicated resources. The description of a resource is independent of how it is retrieved. Everything referred to as a graph is linked and can be queried according to application requirements.

There are numerous ways to optimise your website for maximum performance:
• Minimize HTTP requests.
• Make advantage of CDNs and delete unneeded files/scripts.
• Compress images and optimise files.
• Web browser caching.
• Use CSS3 and HTML5.
• Reduce the size of JavaScript and Style Sheets.
• Improve cache performance.

The Observer pattern is used to build a one-to-many dependency between objects, such that when one object changes its state, all of its dependents are automatically notified and updated. The object that observes the state of another object is known as the observer, and the object being observed is known as the subject.

A Full-Stack engineer is someone with a senior-level role with the experience of a Full Stack developer, but with project management experience in system administration (configuring and managing computer networks and systems). 

Polling is a technique in which a client periodically requests new data from the server. There are two types of polling: long polling and short polling.
• Long polling is a programming method that sends data from the server to the client without any wait.
• It is AJAX-based and uses short polling calls with fixed latency.

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