Orthogonal Array:

Orthogonal Array

Orthogonal Array Testing is a systematic testing technique used toefficiently explore a large number of input combinations with minimal test cases


Orthogonal arrays are mathematical constructs used to represent aset of test cases that cover a wide range of input combinations in a structured and efficient manner.


An orthogonal array consists of rows representing different combinations of input factors, and columns representing the values of those factors.


In software testing, orthogonal arrays can be used to systematically select test cases that cover various combinations of input parameters, such as different operating systems, browsers, and screen resolutions.

Test case from the above table using Orthogonal array:

  • Test Case 1: Windows + Chrome + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 2: Windows + Firefox + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 3: Windows + Safari + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 4: Windows + Edge + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 5: MacOS + Chrome + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 6: MacOS + Firefox + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 7: MacOS + Safari + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 8: MacOS + Edge + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 9: Linux + Chrome + 1920×1080
  • Test Case 10: Linux + Firefox + 1920×1080


  • Orthogonal arrays allow testers to cover a large number of input combinationswith a relatively small number of test cases, saving time and resources.
  • By systematically selecting test cases, orthogonal array testing ensures that a widerange of input combinations is covered, increasing the likelihood of detectingdefects.
  • Orthogonal array testing provides a structured approach to test case selection,making it easy to understand and apply, even for testers with limited experience.


  • Orthogonal arrays may not be suitable for all types of testing scenarios,particularly those involving complex interactions between input factors.
  • Generating orthogonal arrays and mapping them to test cases may require manualeffort, especially in cases where there are numerous input factors and levels.
  • While orthogonal array testing aims to cover a wide range of input combinationsefficiently, there may be trade-offs in terms of coverage completeness comparedto exhaustive testing approaches.

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