Manual Testing

Manual testing Techniques

  • Manual testing techniques are methods used by human testers to verify and validate software applications or systems without the use of automated tools or scripts. These techniques involve executing test cases, observing the software’s behaviour and comparing it against expected results. Manual testing techniques can include.

Manual testing techniques can include

  • Equivalence Partitioning.
  • Boundary Value Analysis.
  • Decision table and.
  • Orthogonal array.

Equivalence Partitioning:

  • Equivalence Partitioning is a software testing technique used todivide the input data of a software application into equivalent classes (partitions) toreduce the number of test cases while still effectively testing the software.


  • Input data is divided into partitions or groups based on the behaviorof the software. Each partition represents a set of data that should produce the same output when processed by the software

Equivalence Classes:

  • Within each partition, data is further grouped into equivalence classes. These classes contain data that is considered equivalent or similar in terms of the expected behavior of the software.

Test Case Selection:

  • Test cases are then designed to cover at least one representative value from each equivalence class. Testing only one value from each class is sufficient because if one value works correctly, it’s likely that the others will too.


Equivalence partitioning helps in reducing the number of test cases required to cover a wide range of scenarios, making testing more efficient.

Fault Detection:

  • By selecting representative values from each equivalence class, this technique helps in detecting faults or defects in the software effectively.


  • Equivalence partitioning helps in reducing the number of test cases needed tothoroughly test the software, saving time and resources.
  • It ensures that a representative set of test cases is selected, covering a wide rangeof input values and scenarios.
  • The technique is relatively simple to understand and apply, making it accessibleeven to testers with limited experience.
  • Equivalence partitioning helps in detecting defects in the early stages ofdevelopment by focusing on key areas of the software.


  • The technique assumes that all values within an equivalence class will produce thesame output, which may not always be true in complex systems.
  • Equivalence partitioning may not detect certain types of defects or edge casesthat fall outside the selected equivalence classes.
  • The effectiveness of equivalence partitioning relies heavily on accurately identifying equivalence classes, which can be challenging, especially in systems with complex inputs.
  • While equivalence partitioning is efficient, it may not provide comprehensivecoverage of all possible inputs and scenarios, leaving some areas untested.

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